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long8龙8手机客户端下载【36o0s.cn】为您提供集团最新官方网站,更高级的VIP服务体验,更多的优惠活动,更快速的存取款时间,专属美女客服一对一服务,赶快注册游戏吧。宝鸡普纪蒂建筑材料集团有限公司(原中卫特簇市场营销有限公司)成立于1993年,占地面积19504平方米,澳门大富豪SW酷炫财神其中生产厂房占地9414平方米,仓库面积占地0363平方米。固定资产6484万元,流动资产4277万元,干部职工共165人,工程技术人员93人。long8龙8手机客户端下载ByLuWei,DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearchofDRCResearchReportNo109,sHigh-TechServiceIndustries:BasicStatusandDevelopmentTrendSincethe1980s,therapiddevelopmentofknowledgeeconomyhascultivatedlargenumbersofhightechnologiesandtheservicei,,thegrowingdemandforserviceoutsourcinghaspromptedtheemergenceofnewth,,Chinashigh-techserviceindustriesareemergingindustries,whicharestillin,Chinashigh-techserviceindustriessuchasinformationtransmission,computerserviceandsoftware,scientificresearch,%%evalueappreciationofservicetargetsandtheinternalservicesofsomeproductionenterprisesarenotstatisticallyincluded,thestatisticalad,withalargescale,alargebasenumberandagrowthratelowert~2007period,theaddedvalueofChinastertiaryindustrygrew17%annuallyonaverage;t%,whichwaslowerthantheaveragelevelofthetertiaryindustry;thatofscientificresearch,%,~2008period,theannualgrowthrateoftheinvestmentinfixedassetsintheindustriesofscientificresearch,technicalserviceandgeologicalprospectingwasction,thegrowthofChinashigtheintermediateconsumptionbyproducerserviceindustrieswasfallingwhilethecoefficientofthepersonalconsumptionwasrising(LiShantong,GaoChuanshengetal:DevelopmentofChinasProducerServiceIndustriesandUpgradingofItsManufacturingIndustry,ShanghaiTrinityBookstore,November2008).Themainreasonwasthatmanufacturin,becausetheseenterpriseswereencouragedtobecomeinnovators,cityandcompetitivenessExceptfortelecomandlargenetworkoperators,,Chinahadover20,000softwareenterprisesin2008,,eachenterpriseemed,,butitsInternetmarketiss,thetotalrevenueofChinamongtheworldtop10,thetoshigh-techserviceenterprisesarenotedforweakinnovationcapacity,andtheirshig,Chinassoftwareserviceindustryisoneoftheindu,theexportofChina,accountingforonly15%,mostoftheinvestmentsinhigh-techserviceindustriescomemainlyfromChinesesources,,mostoftheseinvestmentsareraisedbyenterprisesthemselves,,foreign-controlledenterprisesaccountedfor13%ofallthe14,373softwareenterprisesinChina,and30%,90%oftheinvestmentsinfixedassetsintheindustriesofinformationtransmission,computerserviceandsoftwarewereraisedbyenterprisesthemselves,,%forthei%,accountingfor26%,technicalserviceandgeologicalprospecting,%oftheirinvestmentinfixedassets,,%ofthetotalinvestmentsinfixedassetsintheRDserviceindustry(Seethetablebelowfordetailedinformation).SourcesofInvestmentsinFixedAssetsinVariousIndustriesin2007(%)ByHanJun,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilResearchReportNo001,2010Despitetheunprecedentedshockfromtheinternationalfinancialcrisisandtheseriousimpactofnaturaldisasters,Chinas,farmersincomerosefairlyfastforthesixthconsecutiveyear,moremigrantruralworkerswereemployed,ruralsocialundertakingsscoredmajorprogressindevelopment,ruralreformadvancedtangibly,andinpar,thegoodconditionsfacingagricultureandruralareasweremajorachievementsresultingfromtheeffortsmadebyvariousdepartmentsindifferentfields,whichprovidedasolidfoundationforfastandsteadyeconom,theworkconcerningagriculture,rformanceofag,inventoryisabundantandgrain-growingefficiencyislow,thetend,grainproductionwitnessedtwodrasticfallsagainstthebackdrop,signalsarenotstrongandnomeasuresaretakentoguaranteegrain-growingacreage,grainproductionishigh,internationalgrainmarketisvolatileindemand-supplyrelationshipandChinacanhardlychangethef,akeypoingpolicyintroducedin,,China,byrelyingonoldfacilitiesfortoolongatime,hastomakealotofrenovations,,thecountrywillfinditdifficulttostabilizegrainproductioncapacities,,Chinashouldcarryoutfarmlandwaterconservancyworksinabigwayandinparticularitshoulddras,thecentra,allfarmlandwaterconservancyworks,,thestat,inbothabsoluteandrelativeterms,~2008period,farmers%%.,theruralpercapitanetincomewas5,153yuan,%,theurbanpercapitadisposableincomewas17,175yuan,%:1in2002,:,::,farmers%,%ofthe,thepricesoffarmproductsasawholefaceadownturnpressureandboththenumberofmigrantruralworkersandtheirwagelevelarediffi,Chinashouldfirstimplementpricepoliciestosupportcotton,pig,dairy,oilseed,sugarandothermajorproducts,andsecondcontinuetoencour,theiremployme,itistooearlytosaythereisan“overalllaborshortage”.However,thegovernmentshouldstrengthenservicesrequiredforfarmerstoseekemploymentoutsidetheirnativeplaces,Chinashouldincreasesubs,Chinashouldintensifysupportforfarmersintheoldrevolutionarybases,ethnicareas,hankstothestatepolicytoboostruralconsumption,ruralconsumerdemandbecamevisiblyhigherin2009,withtheretailofconsumergoodsbeipossessionofmainconsumerdurableswasfarlowerthanintheirurbancounterparts,surbanpersonalconsumptionstructureindicatethatruralconsumptionisswitchingfromfoodandclothingtohousingandtransportationandther,theruralsaleofhomeappliances,esshouldberaised,theirvarie,supportingfarmerstobuildhomesandimprovehousingco,ruralhousingconsumptionwasabout500billionyuan,%oftotalruralconsumption,%,,thecentralfinanceallocated4billionyuantosupport800,,,homesarestrawandclaystructures,,nandthedevelopmentofdecoration,homeappliance,furniture,“ruralnewhomeproject”islaunchednationwideandifruralroad,watersupply,drainage,sewagetreatment,garbagetreatment,methanegeneration,gassupply,heatsupplyandotherscientific,educational,culturalandhealthfacilitiesareconstructed,itwillgreatlyimprovetheruralenvironmentf,HebeiandZhejiangProvincesaswellasTibetAutonomousRegionhavemadethefirstmoveinthisrespectandaccumulatedexperienceinsupportingruralhousingconstructionwithcredit,buildingmaterial,land,,Tibetb,over200,000familieshavemovedintonew,eParty,conditionsareadequateforChinatolaunchadriveforruralhomeconstruction,whichcanbetakenasanimportantleveragetoexpandruraldem,,power,roadandgassystemsshouldbeimprovedandruralinformationtechnologyapplicationshouldbepromotedinabigway,anewroundofruralpowergridtransformationshouldbelaunched.。

    LongGuoqiangZhangLipingThisresearchgrouphasrecentlymadeanin-depthinvestigationof11multinationalRDinstitutionsbasedinBeijindtheirChina-basedRDactivitiessince2004andsomemajorpositivechangesaretakingplaceintheareasofscale,sgovernmentsatalllevelsshouldseizethistreeest,moreforeign-investedRDins,theearly100,,mitedtoadaptingtolocalcustomers;manyinstit,,thestatusofChina-baceovertheRDdir,lpersonnelfromabroadtoleadtheirRDactivities,butalsotrainedagreatnumberoflocalpersonnelthroug,tialtoBeTappedTheChina-basedRDactivitiesofmultinationalcompanieshavegreatlyelevatedChinaevelRDpersonnel,,multinationalRDinstit,ationalRDActivitiesInternationalexperienceindicatesthatmultinationalRDactivitiescanhavetechnologicalspillovertohostcountriesthroughthefollowingchannels:theleadingeffectonthetechnologicaldevelopmentofupstreamanddownstreamenterprises,thedemonstrationandcompetitioneffectonenterprisesinthesamesectors,andtheknowledgespillovereffectarisingfrompersonnelflow,,multi,andtrprisesandacademicinstitutionsarestillfew,multinationalcompanntriesThehigherthelevelofmultinationalRDactivitiesis,,thelevelsofmultinationalRDactivitiesinChinaare,thet,theRDactivit,thetop-levtriesintermsoflearningabilityandworkdiligence,,China,higherimporttariffsofRDequipmentandsamples,higherpersonalincometaxratesforRDpersonnelandinadequatefiscalsupportforforeign-investedRDactivities,ChinasRDcostisnotonlyhigherthaninIndiaandEastEurope,butalsoisclosetothe"fourlittledragons",somemultinationalcompaniesstillhavemisgivingsaboutChinaionalRDActivitiesOne,somedifferentialpoliciesdesignedtoencourageindigenousRDactivitieshaveweakenedutthedirectionofChina,theexistingpolicieshavemadeitdifficultforforeign-investedenterprisestoparticipateingovernmentrese,thehouseholdregisterandsocialsecuritysystemsregard,ChinastillhasnocompleteandsoundcustomsfacilitymeasuresforinternationalRDactivitiesandhascustomsbarrierstoRDequipmentandespeciallysecond-handtestequipment,alcompaniestorelocatehigherlevelsofRDactivitiestoChinaandtofurthertapthet,whichcanbrin,manycountrieshaveworked,Chinaenjoysadvantageinmarketscaleandpotential,,fiscalinput,,Chinashouldtapadvantagesandovercomedisadvantagesandworkhardtocreateaworld-rateenvironmentforRDinvestment....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ByXiangAnbo,ResearchTeamon"StudyofGovernment-CorporateRelationsofStrategicEmergingIndustries",theEnterpriseResearchInstituteofDRCResearchReportNo6,2011TheoverallperformanceofChinasInternetofThingsisgood,,enterprisesdonothavematurecommercialmodels,,,governmentandenterprisesshouldworktogethertocultivatemassmarketdemand,developkeytechnologies,establishtechnologyandapplicationstandards,buildsupportinginfrastructures,protectinformationsecurityandprivacy,andpromotecooperationbetweenindustry-relatedregulatorydepartmentsandcoordinationbetweenenterprises,,improvinggovernment-corporaterelationsandformingadevelopmentpatternthatfeaturesgovernmentpromotion,corporateinitiativeandgovernment-cor,countriesaroundtheworldpaymuchattentionto,astheInternetofThingsofferscomprehensiveperception,reliabletransmissionandintelligenthandling,itcanensurehumanbeingstohaveatechnologicalbasisforthereal-timecontrol,,theInternetofThingscanberegardedasapenetrationoftheInternetintorealeconomy,whoseindustrialchainincorporatesmoreupstreamanddownstreamparticipantsandwidensth,,theInternetofThingsisahighlandforthefuturecompetitionbetweenvariouscountriesinthefiel,theInternetofThingsisalsoabosnewindustrializationprocessanericaninthefieldofInternetofThingsapplicationresearches,ry,andcitieslikeBeijing,Shanghai,,severalInternetofThingsindustrialalliancesarebeingformedinChina,andth,therelevantauthoritiesshouldpaymuchattention,observethelawsofindustrialandtechnologicaldevelopment,associatedwithChinasInternetofThingsdevelopmentInthecourseofrapiddevelopmentofInternetofThings,theenterprisesinChinaalsofacesomechallenges,whichcannsInternetofThingsindustryisstillintheinitial,inadequateunderstandingandhighapplicationc,Chinashouldchangeitsoldmindsetandpractice,giveequalemphasistobothdemandandsupplyends,tapthepotentialoftheChinesemarket,andcultivatsthathavepracticalfunctionsandcancreatevalues,andtoinnovatecommercialmodelssothattheInternetofThingsenterprisesinChinacanboostthe,theInternetofThingsasastrategicemergingindustryhasthe,whenthereisnoeffectiveinterest-sharingmechanism,Internetoperatorsandothercorporateoligarchsmayabusetheirmonopolisticpowerstopreventfair,thegovernmentshouldstrengthenplanning,regulationandcoordinationforInternetofThingsdevelopmentsoastoeffectivelybalanceandharmonizetheinterestsofdifferentparties,encouragetheircooperation,,stabilizingqualityanden,Chinastillhasnounifiedstandards,integration,deploymentandmaintenanceandtodevelopemergingindustriesandalsoanintelligence-basedinfrastructureforChinato,,thegovernmentshouldmakeproperinvestmentatapropertimeorencouragethethreemajortelecomoperators,cableoperatorsandrelated,thegovernmentshoulduseinvestmentandothermeasurestobuildpublicoperatingandserviceplatformsandatthesametimeguideenterprisestomakeinvestmentinbuildingapplicationplatformsthatwillserverelevantindustries.10-200米ByChenChangsheng,DepartmentofMacroeconomicResearch,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo102,2013(Total4351)Overthepastthreedecades,%,,ChinaspercapitaGDProsefromUS$154toUS$6,060,orfrom220internationaldollarsto9,100internationaldollarsbasedonpurchasingpowerparity,indic,Chinahasgrownfromasmalltraderwithashareoflessthan1%intheworldtothelargestexporterofgoodsandthelargestmanufactureroftheworld,$,Chinaisthesecondlargesteconomyintheworld,onlyaftertheUnitedStates,,,thecurrentstageofdevelopmentandthechangedworldeconomicorderhavebroughtdifferentfeaturestoChina,andtheeconomicoperationwillbecomemorefragile,usheringin,therewillbeadiminishedadvantageoflow-costlabor,,peoplebecomelesswillingtohavechildren,andthelong-,Chinawillseeademographicstructurefeaturinglowbirthrate,,dragthesavingsratedown,,inves,ewhatadvancedcountieshaveachievedforyearsisthattheformercancapitalizeexistingadvancedtechnologiesandsystemstoenhancefastthetotalfactorsproductivity(TFP).However,theycouldonlygetlimitedfrontiertechnologiesandountrieswillseesteppeddeclineanddropsignificantlywhenpercapitaGDPreachesabout10,,thetechnologicalstrideswillobviouslyslowdown,,thespaceformoredduction,,ontheonehand,fastincreasingdemandforimportantindustrialproductsandcapitalgoodsasevidencedbyhikingoutputofsteel,electricity,auto,cementandhouseholdappliance,andontheotherhand,theconcentrationofpopulationandrelevantfactors,increasingintegrationofdomesticmarketandfastenhancementoftheurbanalueandtheurbanizationratewillgrowslowerwhenthepercapitaGDPreachesabout11,ialproductsinChina,theabsolutepeakvalueorthegrowthpeakvalueoftheoutputofsteel,cement,,sswiftinvolvementinglobalizationhasexpandeditsexternaldem,Chinasshareintheworldtrade(11%),China,furtherupgradingofChinasexportswillbringstrongercompetitors(mainlydevelopedcountrieslikeEurope,AmericaandJapan)andturndifferentiatedcompetitionsintohomogeneouscompetitions,thereb,withcontinuouslyrisinglaborcost,Chinastraditionalexportadvantage,tsexportgrowthfromover20%toaround10%,rowthFollowingtheHigh-growthPeriodThehistoryofgrowthofvariouscountries(economies)aftertheIndustrialRevolutionindicatesthatthereareupsanddownswithth,catch-upeconomiescanalwaysmakeuseofexistingexperienceintechnology,management,market,systemandotv,ittakestheUK141yearsandtheUnitedStates109yearstoincreasetheirrespectivepercapitaGDPfrom1,800internationaldollarsto11,,SingaporeandHongKongSARofChinahaveonlyspent54,37and31yearsrespectivelytoreachthatgoal,,thelowertheoriginalpercapitaGDPis,thehighertheaveragegrowthrateisinthecatch-upprocess;thelatertheeconomytakesoff,,historyshowsthatnoteverytake-offeconomycansmoothlyachieveindustrializationandenjoysteadylanding,,atotalof101countriesandregionshaverankedamongglobalmiddle-incomecountriesaftershort-termfastgrowth,buttill2008,only13countriesandregionshadsuccessfullyj,SouthKorea,TaiwanandHongKongSARofChina,PuertoRico,Mauritius,SingaporeandIsrael,etc..However,mostcountriesandregio"middle-incometrap"featuringeconomicstagnationandevensetbackduetovariousreasons,typicallyrepresentedbysomeLatinAmericancountriesandanumberofstatesfromformerSovietUnionandEasternEurope.。

    吉利GPK视讯Figure4:GrowthofIndustrialValueAddedofVariousRegionsduringJanuary-August2012Whatmeritsattentionisthat,despitetherapidgrowthinChinaswesternregion,thetotalprofitsearnedbyenterprisesinman,autonomousregionsandmunicipalitiesinChinaswesternregion,thetotalamountofindustrialprofitsearnedby8regionsdecreasedascomparedwiththesameperiodoflastyear,and5oftheregionssawthedecreaseinexcessof20%,andprofitsearnedbyenterprisesinZhejiangineasternChinaandthoseinHainandroppedby20%,thingswerebetterwithChinascentralregion,where5ofthe6provincesmaintainedapositivegrowth,%,allyandtheexport-drivenenterprisesfacethemostdifficulttimeinproductionandoperationInviewoftheultimatedemandimpact,growthofbusinessincomeandprofitsofinvestment-andexport-drivenindustr,salesin%fromJanuarytoAugust,%inthesameperiodoflastyear,,amongothers,suchasnon-metallicmineralproducts(buildingmaterials),smeltingofferrousmetals(ironandsteel),manufacturingofothertransportationandcommunicationequipmentandwastematerials,decreasedbynearly20%orhigheryearonyear,andtheprofitsofexport-drivenchemicalrawmat%%,%,whilesuchratiosofexport-drivenenterprises,exceptforthoseinvolvedinthemanufacturingofinstrumentsandmeters,,theprofitratiosofthech%%respectively,andsuchratiosofotherenterprisesinvolvedintextile,furniture,stationery%-%,showinganoperatingpredicamentonthewhole.ByGuShuzhongZhangLiangHongTao,ResearchInstituteofResourcesandEnvironmentPoliciesofDRCResearchReportNo3,morehillyslopesdeterminetheimportantstatusofandrolesplayedbyhillyslopesintermsoflanddevelopmentandutilizationChinasmountainousregionsandhillylandsmakeup65%ofthecountry,thelandreclamationratehasbeenlowerthan10%,inZhejiang,70%aremountainousregions,23%areplainsand6%(15mumakeonehectare),,yettheareaofhillocksandgentleslopesisequivalenttothatofthearableland;theprovinceofYunnanhasapercentageof94%ofmountainousandsemi-mountainousregionsandapercentageofonly6%,plainsandbasinshavebeendevelopedconsiderablyandthoseareregionswherepopulation,,thepotentialfordevelopmentofthoseregionshavebecomelimited,yetthoseregionsareshoulderingtheresponsibilityandpressureofensuringeco,exploitingandutilizingmowlevelonthewholeandthepotentialsandprospectsforanoveralldevelopmentandutilizationarehugeandbroad(1),,suchhilloc,hillocksandgentleslopesareatypical"marginalland",amarginaltypeamongvarioustypesofland,thuscausingtheinstabilityoftheland,andchangesareapttohappeninusesofthelandandthelandiseasilyusedasforest,grass,arableandconstructionland,whichisusuallyknownas"marginalswitchofuses".(2)elopmentandutilizationofhillocksandgentleslopesinZhejiang,theprovincehas36millionmuintotalofutilizablehillocksandgentleslopes,ofwhich33millionmuaresuitableforfarming,%;,%;520,000muarehardtoutilize,%.TheareaofthehillocksandgentleslopesinZhejiangisequivalenttothatoftheprovincesarableland,yetthehillocksandgentleslopeshavelimitedpopulationandindustries,,thecountrywidehillocksandgentleslopesaccountforapproximately10%ofthetotallandarea,beingbasicallyequivalenttothenationalarablelandstock.(3)D:,residentiallandandinfrastructureland(road,drainage,sewagetreatment,trashtreatment,water-supplyandpower-supplyfacilities,etc.).Theselandtypescanbeusedaslandresourcesfortheconstructionofcitiesandtoweisureandlandscapeareasaccordingtotheirspecificconditionsandtheoverallplanning,whichisbeneficialtothemaintenanceoftheecologicalenvironmen,moreplainscanbeobtainedasarablelandthatismoresuitablefsarablelandthroughnecessaryproj,hillocksandgentleslopescanbeutilizedaslandresourcesfordevelopingnewenergyresources(windpowerandsolarpower).portantwayforrelievinglandshortageatpresentperiod(1)Theplightsofensuringtheeconomicdevelopmentandmain,urbanizationandmodernizationcurrentlytakingplaceinChina,therehasbeenarobustdemandforland,especiallylandforconstruction,,Chinaisconfronted,andwillbelongconfrontedwiththepressureandchallengeoffoodsecurityandtherehasbeenanever-increasingpressureandrequirementforprotectingarableland."Ensuringtheeconomicdevelopmentwhilemaintainingtherock-bottomamountofarableland"hasbeenandwillbe,withinalongperiodoftime,forconstruction.(2),thehillocksandgentleslopes,asthe"marginalland",havebecomethetargetandhopeforrelievingtheplights:constructionlandsupply,aswellasoneofthemainchannelsforprovidingimportantlandresourcesforindustrialization,urbanizationandconstructionofthenewcountryside;ablelandoccupiedforindustrialization,urbanizationandconstructionofthenewcountrysideandinfrastructurefacilitiesandforeffectivelyprotectingarableland;(thoughthechoiceisnowatissueandshouldnotbeadvocatedatpresent)forcomplementingarablelandresourcesaccordingtolocalconditions;tureandforgraduallyrealizingthemaximumefficiencybyutilizingthelandforfarming,sGovernmentonAdvancingtheOverallDevelopmentandUtilizationofHillocksandGentleSlopesdemonstratesthat"theoveralldevelopmentandutilizationofhillocksandgentleslopesisamainwayforrealizingtheequilibriumbetweenoccupationandsupplementationofarableland,aneffectiveapproachforguaranteeingthereasonablelanddemandineconomicandsocialdevelopmentandanimportantmeasureforfacilitatingtheconstructionofthenewsocialistcountryside".ThusitcanbeseenthatZhejianghadanapparentintentionofdevelopingsomehillocksandgentleslopesintsGovernmentonStrengtheningArableLandProtectionandPromotingtheScientificDevelopmentofUrbanizationobservesthat"effortsshouldbemadetoearnestlychangetheurbanandrurallandusepatterns,tostrictlyprotectarablelandparticularlythefinelandindamareas,topromotetheeconomyandeffectiveutilizationoflandresourcesandtofacilitatethescientificeconomicandsocialdevelopment".ThusitcanbeseenthatYunnansintentionforexploitingandutilizinghillocksandgentleslopeswasinthefirstplacetoprotectthefinearablelandonwhichthepeopleofYunnanrelyforsurvivalwhereasindustrializationandurbanizationwasa"mandatoryoption".ByWangLiejunGongSen,ResearchDepartmentofSocialDevelopmentofDRCResearchReportNo50,2010Chinashouseholdregistersystemisnotonlyapopulationmanagementsystembasedonhouseholdregister,butalsoasystemonrightsdefinitionandinterestersystem,itisnecessarytobrieflyreviewtheprocessofthesystemsFunctionHasGraduallyShiftedfromRestrictingPopulationMovementtoProtectingLocalSocialWelfareInadditiontothegeneralfunctionsofpopulationmanagementandpublicordermaintenance,Chinashouseholdregistersys,thecouonandtoprotectthelimitedjobscreated,,formallyintroducedin1958,wasdesignedtostrictlyrestrictruralpopulation,itsfoodsupplybecameincreasinglysu,,,,"peasantworkers",thehouseholdregiemsandaspeasantsvirtuallyhadnosayinpolicymaking,ahostofwelfaresystemssuchasfullemployment,housing,medicalcare,education,nursingandold-agepensionweresubsequentlyestablishedtotargetonurbanresidentsonly,whorepresentedasmallproportionofChinaspopulationatthetime(LinYifuetal:ChinasMiracle:DevelopmentStrategyandEconomicReform,TrinityBookstoreShanghaiBranch,1996;CaiFang:ChinasCityDevelopmentinTransition–CityLevels,FinancingCapacitiesandMigrationPolicies,EconomicResearch,,2003).Asthisprocesswashighlypath-dependentandself-reinforcing,,andpartlytoregionalgovernments,afterthemid-1980swhenthehouseholdregistersystemceasedtoperformthefunctionofrestrictingruralpopulationsmigrationtourbanareas,thesystemsmainfu:,,othermeansoflivelihoodandjobswerenolon,,thismainlinebegantohaveanewcontent:gister,whichwas,inasense,,nowpubliclydiscussed,mainlyreferstothelatter.(1)Thereformofsmalltownhouseholdregistersyst,featuringtheliberalizationofhouseholdregisterqualifications,,thedevelopmentofruralenterprisespromptedrurallabortorapidlymovetosmalltowns,andsmalltownsalsoneededtoexpa,smalltownhouseholdregisterofferedlesssocial,thestatebegantoallowpeasantstoworkandliveinsmalltowns(excludingcountytowns)(thelandmarkpolicydocumentwastheNoticeoftheStateCouncilonAllowingPeasantstoSettleDowninSmallTowns).Aftersomeupsanddowns,anation,theGuidelinesforPromotingtheReformoftheSmallTownHouseholdRegisterSystemwerepromulgatedtowidenareasforpea,thequalificationsforsmalltownhouseholdregisterwereto"havelegalpermanentresidenceandstablejoborsourceofincome".Inpractice,"legalpermanentresidence"becamethemainqualification,whichgraduallyevolvedinto"housepurchaseforhouseholdregister".Ashousepricesinsmalltownswerenothigh,speciallyintherealestatesector,butalsohelpedsolvetheseparationofmigrantrural,smalltownshavefailedtoincreasejobsbyabigmargin,moreandmoreeconomicandsocialpolicieshavebeenintroducedinfavorofruralareas,potentialcompensationsforlandexpropriationshavebecomerelativelyhigh,andthepeasantswhohaveacquiredur,smalltownhouseholdregisterhasgraduallylostitsappealtopeasants,andsomepeasantswhohaveacquireister,insteadofhouseholdregisteritself,thathavearealappeal.long8龙8手机客户端下载重合同守信誉企业市级明星企业,LeiWeiTheoutbreakoftheinternationalfinancialcrisishastaughtusaprofoundlesson,thatis,guardingagainstthesystematicrisksandstrengtheningtheprudentmacromanagement,itisofvitalimportancetodrawonandpaycloseattentiontotheinternationaltrendofreformonprudentmacromanagementframeworkandconstructonethatissuitedtoChinaeworkatthePresentStageofDevelopmentinChinaCurrently,thefinancialregulationinChinastillremainsatthelevelofprudentmicromanagementandtheconceptofaprudentmacromanagementhas,thelatenthiddensystematicrisksarepressingforthereformofChinabilityareincreasingAtpresent,Chinalacksaspecialdepartmentinitsmacro-controlsystemtogetagraspoftheoverallpictureofthesystematicfinancialrisksfromtheprudentmacromanagementperspectiveandtomakein-depthanalysisofthecloselinkpolicy-making,,themacrorisksfacingChinasfinancialsystemmainlyinclude:One,theadverseimpactofthedisequilibriuma,thepressuregeneratedbytheaccumulationoftheassetpricebubbles,suchastherealestateprices,,thepressurearisingfromthedrasticincreaseofloansthroughi,thegrowingimpactofthecross-bordercapitalflowonChinaralldevelopmentInrecentyears,withthedevelopmentofthepilotprojectsofcomprehensivefinancialbusinessmanagementandofmulti-industryandtrans-marketintersectingfinancialbusinessoperationrepresentedbywealthmanagementproductsandprivateequities,thecurrentlyenforcedfinancialregulationsystemisbeingfacedwithseverechallengesandthesystematicf,thereisalackofeffectivesupervisionovertheever-growingfinancialholdingcompanies,particularlythereislittlesupervisionoverthecomprehensi,,thereisashortageofunitaryregulatoryrulesonmulti-industryandtrans-marketintersectingfinancialbusinessoperations,spresentfinancialregulationsystemAtpresent,thePeoplesBankofChina,ChinaBankingRegulatoryCommission,ChinaSecuritiesRegulatoryCommissionandChinaInsuranceRegulatoryCommissionhaveconductedthefinancialsupervisionandcontrolinitsinitialform,thusofficiallyformingthefinancialregulationsystemcharacterizedbydividedoperation,dividedcontrolansBankofChinaismainlyinchargeofformulating,enhancingandimplementingmonetarypoliciesand,meanwhile,italsopracticesforeignexchangecontrol,exercisesfollow-upsurveysoftheinternationalfinancialmarketandissueearly-warningsonmarketrisks,supervisesandcontrolscross-bordercapitalflows,interbankmarkets,bankbondmarkets,bankbillmarkets,interbankforeignexchangemarkets,goldma,theStateCouncilapprovedtheRegulationontheMainFunctions,InteriorInstitutionsandStaffingofthePeoplesBankofChinaansfinancialregulationsystemInrecentyears,withtherapiddevelopmentoffinancialglobalization,liberalizationandfinancialinnovation,thefinancialindustryhasbeenopeningwide,thepresentfinancialregulationsystemhasbecomeincreasinglyunabletoadapttothechangesandtheinherentdefectsofthissystemhavegraduallyloomedup.(1)InadequatesupervisionandcoordinationunderthepresentregulationsystemCurrently,multi-industryproblemsaremainlysolvedthroughconsultationatt,theministry-leveljointconferencemechanismisonlyanexpedientmeasureforstrengtheningfinancialregulationandcoordinationunderthepresentfinancialsystem,,theministry-leveljointconferencesystemisusuallyatemporaryfinancialregulationan,forlackoflegalsupportonthenationallevel,theconstraintandauthoritativenessofsuchamechanismwillbecrippledconsiderablyandthedecisionsmadeatthejointconferenceswon,usually,“memorandums”aresignedbyvarioussectorsfortheestablishmentoftheministry-leepolicyorbusinessissues,thecoord,thoughthePeoplesBankofChinaplaysaroleinsafeguardingthefinancialstability,ithasnorelevantmeasuresandadministrativeauthoritativeness.(2)InadequateconstructionofthesystemforguardingagainstsystematicfinancialrisksTherehasbeeninadequateconstructheopeningup,thesystematicfinancialriskswillexertincreasinglyevidentinfluenceonChinasiveinthedaystocome,therewill,weshouldtakeprecautionsbymakingfulluseofChinaslatterdevelopmentadvantagesinsystematicinnovationanddesignandplaninadvanceafinancialregulationsystemconducivetoguardingagainstanddissolvingsystematicfinancialrisks.,oftheinterviewedenterprises,25sawtheirsalesrevenuegrowingrapidly(byover10%),38sawtheirgrowingsteadily(by5%~10%),13sawtheirgrowingslowly(by0~5%)%,only1islistedand4arestate-owned,%%%oftheirtotalemployeesduring2007~2011,%,theave,9sawtechnicallevelsoftheirmanufacturingequipmentlivinguptointernationaladvancedlevelsand13sawtheirsreachingtheadvanceddomesticlevels,suggestingthatequipmenttechnologiesareofvitalimportancetoproductqualityandcompetitivepower,%ofthetextileenterprisesinChinawereshortofworkersinvaryingdegreesand,inthefirsthalfof2012,%,,17ofthe81surveyedtextileenterprisesthoughttheyhadsufficienthumanresources,yetmostoftheenterprisessaidthatitwasquitedifficultforthemtorecruitgeneralandtechnierelargeenterprises,%ofallsurveyedlargeenterprisesand,3ofthe9enterprisesalsomentionedtheyhaddifficultyrecruitingskilledworkersandthatthenewrecruitswerelesscapable,suggestingthatproblemslikelaborshortageandinabilitytoretainpersonnelexistatlargeandtheproblemsarenotmuch,6ofthe17enterprisesthatheldthattheyhadsufficienthumanresourcessawtheirsalesrevenueincreasingbymorethan10%inrecent3yearsand10sawtheirsupby5%~10%,%,suggestingthatenterpriseswithgoodbusinessperformancearelessboggeddowninseriouslaborsh,19weremedium-sizedandsmallandmicro-sizedenterprises,makingup76%,suggestingthatlargeenterprisesaremoreattractivetotalentedpeople.Note:Dishiddeninordernottodisclosethedataaboutspecificenterprises.*islowerthan500,:USBureauofEconomicAnalysis:http:///.eswhentheyinvestintheUnitedStates,largeChineseenterprisesspecializinginforeigntradeandindustrialtrade,,someenterprisesbegantopurchasethebrandsandmarketingchannels,computermakerLenovopurchasedthepersonalcomputerbusinessoftheIBM,andtheQinchuanMachinerypurchasedtheUnitedAmericanIndustries,,it,whenHaierestablishedplantsintheUnitedStates,itsstrategicgoalwastogainafootholdintheUnite,wh,computer,chemical,bio-pharmacy,veforresearch,developmentandinnovation,ithasattractedChine,LenovoestablishedaresearchanddevelopmentlaboratoryintheSiliconValleyin1992inordertoordertoboostitstechnologicalstrengthinthefieldsofopticaltransmission,,suchastheCITIC,theytransferredproduction,WanxiangGrouppurchasedtheUSSchelerCompanyinthebeginningofthiscenturyandthentransferredtheproductionofallSchelerproductstoitsfactoryinChina,whileusingtheSchelerbrandtosellthemintheUnitedStates.ChinaEntrepreneursSurveySystemofhumanresourceresearchandtrainingcenterofDRCResearchReportNo127,2010TheEntrepreneurSurveySystemattachedtotheHumanResourceStudyandTrainingCenterofDRChasissued16,000questionnaireson"Follow-upQuestionnaireSurveyofChineseBusinessOperators2009",5,31provinces,,thenumbe%%respectively;t%,%%,%.,butthinkitmoredi%ofbusinessoperatorsare"quitefamiliarwith"or"familiarwith"relevantstrategictheories,%ofthemare"familiaronthewhole"%ofthemare"quiteunfamiliar"or"lessfamiliar";over70%ofenterpriseshavemappedoutwrittenstrategicplansforaperiodofmorethanoneyearandlessthan1/3ofthemhaveformulatedstrategicplansforaperiodofoverthreeyears;%ofbusinessoperatorsagreeorquiteagreethat"itismuchmoredifficulttoimplementthestrategiesthantomapthemout",%%,(Theevaluationofestimateiscalculatedona5-pointbasisquiteagree=5,agree=4,justagree=3,disagree=2,quitedisagree=,),,businessoperatorshavebasicallyrecognizedtheimportanceoftheenterprisestrategyandknowaboutstrategictheories,yetonlylessthanonethirdofenterpri,mostbusinessoperatorsthinkitmuchmoredifficulttoimplementstrategiesthantomapthemout,whichsuggeststhatformulatingeffectivestrategiesandimprovingtheabilitytoimplementthest(SOEs)andpersonaldecision-makingispracticedinnon-state-ownedbusinessesWithregardtothemainworkwhichoperatorsaredirectlyinchargeof,%oftheoperatorshavechosen"formulationofstrategies",,%oftheoperatorshavechosenthepositionof"Director/GeneralManager",rankingthetop,%ofthemhavechosenpositionsin"BoardofDirectors",rankingthesecond,withotherschoosingpostsin"managergroups"orin"highercompetentauthorities"and"leadingenterprisePartygroups".Thesurveyshowsthatdirector/generalmanagerandboardofdirectorsareonthewholethemainbodytofinalizestrategicdecisionsandfinalstrategicdecisionsaremadebydirectors/generalmanagersinhalfoftheenterprises,oupsinover60%ofthestate-ownedenterprisesandsuchdecisionsaremadebydirectors/generalmanagersinmorethan50%e-ownedenterprises,ongoperatorsisofcriticalimportancetotheenhancementofthedecision-makingabilityWithregardtothemethodsforimprovingthestrategicdecision-makingability,thesurveyshowsthatthefirstthreechoicesbybusinessoperatorsaresuccessively"optimizinghighermanagementgroups","improvingstrategicthinkingamongentrepreneurs"and"amelioratinginstitutionalframeworkandmanagementsystems".Otherchoicesinclude"encouragingemployeestoparticipateindecision-making","transformingpersonalvaluesofentrepreneurs","shapinginnovativeculture"and"optimizingprocessofstrategicdecision-making".Thesurveyshowsthat,generallyspeaking,businessoperatorsthinkthatthemainchannelsforimprovingthedecision-makingabilityaresuccessively"optimizinghighermanagementgroups","improvingstrategicthinkingamongentrepreneurs","amelioratinginstitutionalframeworkandmanagementsystems","encouragingemployeeparticipation"and"transformingpersonalvaluesofentrepreneurs".,"optimizingequitiesandcorporategovernance"issecondonlyto"optimizinghighermanagementgroups"and"improvingstrategicthinkingamongentrepreneurs",rankingthethird,whichsuggeststhat,forstateandstatecontrollingcompanies,equityoptimizationandsystematicreformisstillo"imperative"and"visionary",withlessparticipationbyemployeesThesurveyhasbeenmadeinto"imperative","visionary","formalstrategicplan"and"employeeparticipation""imperative","visionary"and"formalstrategicplan"decision-makingmodelsandspeakrelativelylowofthe"employeeparticipation"reemodelstomakedecisionsandhavelaidparticularstresson"imperative"and"visionary",the"imperative"modelhasbeenscoredthehighest,indicatingthattheimperativedecision-makingiscurrenorereacting"imperative"or"visionary"models,whichtoacertainextentreflectsthedynamicsandcomplexityofthebusinessenvironmentinChinaandstressestheimpactoftraditiona,the"employeeparticipation"modelhasbeenscoredlowly,suggestingthatemployeesofC,profitability,overallqualityandsocialperformanceand,meanwhile,hasanalyzedthecorrelationbetweendecision-makingmodelsandthebusinessperformance(Thegrowthincludessalesgrowthandmarketoccupancy;profitabilityincludesprofitmargin,profitlevelandrateofreturnoninvestment;overallqualityincludescompetitiveposition,customersatisfactionandstabilityofworkers;socialperformanceincludessocialimage,).Thesurveyshowsthat"visionary","formalstrategicplan"and"employeeparticipation"modelshaveaconspicuouspositivecorrelationwithallthefouraspectsofthebusinessperformance,whilethe"imperative"modelhasaconspicuouspositivecorrelationonlywithoverallqualityandsocialperf"imperative"modelplaysonthewholeapartofsuccessandfailureinthedevelopmentofChineseenterprisesandthat,toraisethebusinessperformance,weshouldononehandstepupthestrategicthinkinganddecision-makingabilityofbusinessoperatorsandontheotherhandshouldplaceimportanceon"visionary","formalstrategicplan"and"employeeparticipation"modelsandenhancetherationalityofthedecision-makingmodels.20108月通过ISO9001:2000国际质量管理。

    我公司以ByChenDaofu,ResearchTeamon"DeepingtheReformofRuralCreditCooperatives",ResearchInstituteofFinanceofDRCResearchReportNo151,elopmentofRuralCreditCooperativesDespitethereformsandchangeofcompetentauthorities,thepolicyandcom,eventheone-of-the-kindinsomeregions,theruralcredit"givingpolicysupporttoagriculture,facilitatinglocaldevelopment,guardingagainstrisksthroughsupervisionandearningprofitontheirown",theruralcreditcooperativesfindsitselfinadilemmaofattendingtosustainablebusinrcialization,theruralcreditcooperativesarealsofacingthequestionofhowtosetupthesustainablebusinessdevelopmentmodelthroughtransformationsoastoservetheever-growing"agriculture,ruralareasandfarmers"aswellasmicroandsmallenterprises(MSEs).sdevelo"agriculture,ruralareasandfarmers"andmicroandsmallenterprisesare"agriculture,ruralareasandfarmers",thedevelopmentoftheindustrialeconomyandthewitheringofthesectorrelatedto"agriculture,ruralareasandfarmers"berofpeopleengagedinagriculture,"emptyvillages",someagriculture-basedenterpriseshavebeguntodeve,greatchangeshave,,theunse,,efoundthemselvesnotinapositiontoadapttotheneedfordiversifiedeconomicdevelopmentinruralareasandthatthecounty-levelcorporatejointcooperativesareunabletoadapttothechangeinruralcapitalneedsforlackofcapitalfundandfundcapacity(loanratioforeachsinglecustomerisrestricted)andduetorelativelylowpersonnelquality(productdevelopmentabilityislimited).Intermsofthefeaturesofthefinancialperformance,thereisaworldofdifferenceinbusinessmodelandriskmanagementapplicabletoservicesofferedtoindustryandurbanlargeandmedium-sizedenterprisesaswellastothesectorof"agriculture,ruralareasandfarmers"andmicroandsmallenterprises,andtherequirementsformanagementstructure(governancemechanism)dstandardized,witheachamountbeinghandsome,therefore,thecooperativespaymoreattentiontopledge,"agriculture,ruralareasandfarmers"andtomicroandsmallenterprisesarerelativelysimpleandlessstandardized,witheachamountbeingsmall,therefore,thecooperativespaymoreattentiontoactualservicesandcashflowsandlayemphasisonlawoflargenumbers,informationt,theformercallsforcompletesetupofsectionsandstressesstandardizationandinteraction,whilethelatteremphasizesontheflexibilityontheprem,toservewhichevertypesofrealeconomies,theeconomiesofscaleandeconomiesofscopedoexistinthefinancialsectoranddsize,ematicrisksforasingl,differentservicegroupswillleadtodifferentbusinessoperationandriskmanagementmodelsforfinancialinstitutions,yetthesustainableoperationsaleoperationarenotboundtohappenandshouldnotcompletelygoagainsttheprovisionofeffectivefinancialservicesforspecificgroups,w,changeofruralcreditcooperativesservicetargetshasposedaedoffastheywereNamely,whetherthecooperativesshouldbeallowedtoexpandtheirdistrictsofoperationtodiversifyandwidentheirbusinessscaleandchangetheirmanagementmodel,itisthechangeoftheeconomicenvironmentthathasposedaquestionofpositioningofthecreditcooperatives,thatis,whetherthecooperativesshouldchangewiththegrowthoftheservicetargetsorjustconcentrateont,thereisalsoaquestionofwhatmethodsaremoreeffectiveintheendtosatisfythefinancialservicedemandarisingfrom"agriculture,ruralareasandfarmers"andmicroandsmallenethebusinessdevelopmentmodelsthatconformtotheeconomicdevelopmentandlawoffinancialoperationassumedinvariouslocalitiesandmaintaincommercialsustainability.、long8龙8手机客户端下载用户至上澳门伟德投注ByZhouHongchun,ResearchDepartmentofSocialDevelopmentofDRCResearchReportNo182,2010Garbageisanissuethatconcernspeopleslivelihoodandimpactspeopleslivingenvironmentandphysicalhealth,oproperlyhandlelegitimatepublicoutcriesforenvironmentalprotection,,thisissueshouldreceivehighat,theissueo,whichstoodatabout30milliontonsin1981,roseto154milliontonsin2008,atanannualgrowthrateof5%~6%.,000countycitiesand20,000centraltownswereincluded,,garbag"headache"tockpilingInfaceofrapidurbangarbagegrowth,theinitialmethodemployedbyso"garbage-besieged",whichspoilscitylooks,,riverwater,groundwaterandotherwatersourcesareseriouslypolluted,,theorganicmattersdecompose,,notedforhighincidenceofdiseases,,roblemSomecitieshavebeenslowinlandplanningandusedthe,,"perceivableandtouchable"vanityprojectsandneglecttheconstrtedbythegeneralpublicbeca,somesmallandmedium-sizedcitieshavecommissionedgarbagetreatmenttoenterprisesthroughbiddingandotherchannelsandfailedtoexercisenecessary,theexistenceandoperationofthesefacilitieshaveaffectedthelifeandphysicalhealthofnearbyresidents,elopmentoftheChineseeconomyandthecontinuousimprovementofthepeopleslivingstandard,dhealthrisks,and,thegrowingpublicresentmentsinthear,residentsinBeijing,Guangzhou,Jiangsuandotherplaceseitherstagedsit-insingarbagetreatmentgrounds,ormade"strolls"intherelatedgrounds,,whichnowhasarisingenvironmentalawareness,beginstotakeadvantageofInternetconveniencetovoicetheirhopethattheydonotwantgarbagetreatmentgroundsbuiltintheir"backyard",andconsistentwiththehuman-orienteds,indealingwithmassincidents,afewcitymanagers,whoareincompetentinsolvinggarbageproblemsandlackabilitytodealwithmassincidentsintheinformationage,,theytakeinappropriatemeasures,only,solvinggarbageproblemsGarbageDisposalIsMoreComplexthaninDevelopedCountriesChinasugncountries,thesubjectsofurb,theenvironmentaldepartmengandutilization,,Chinaisinthestageofrapidindustrializationandurbanization,,,advancepreparationssu,,someplacesusereservedlandfillgroundsforrealestatedevelopmentandindustrialconstruction."Thenextgovernmentpaysnoattentiontothedecisionsmadebythepreviousgovernment."Governmentdepartmentsscrambleforanythi,theenviron,garbagetreatmentgroundsbecomecloserandclosertoresidentialareasandtheaccumulatedgantsAlthoughthecomponentsofforeigngarbagearerelativelystableandgarbagesortingandrecyclingreceivehighattention,composting,,Europeancountriestreated42%oftheirgarbagebyland-filling,20%byrecyclingand17%filli,,seconomicdevelopment,,thegarbageinBeijing,Shanghai,Guangzhouandotherlargecitiescontainsahigherratioofrecyclablecompo,thegarbageofsmallandme,morethan70%,nos...Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ByXuXiaoqing,LiQingWuZhenjun,TaskForceon"PolicyResearchontheSupplyandDemandChangesoftheMainAgriculturalProduct,CostPriceChangesandMarketRegulations",,2011ThenortheastregionisChinasmajorgrainp,,theprovinceofHeilongjiangsawitscommoditygrainraterisingto80%,itscommoditygrainoutputreaching80billionjin(twojinmakeonekilo),anditspercapitagrainpossessionbeing2,,theprovinceofJilinpostedacommoditygrainrateof81%,acommoditygrainoutputof48billionjin,andapercapitagrainpossessionof2,blemsregardingthegrainproductionandcirculationintheregionthisautumn,,(1)Therapidincreaseofround-grainednonglutinousrice(japonicarice)hasturnedthetwoprovincesintoChina,suchassettingfloorpricesforgrainpurchase,allowingtemporarypurchaseandstorage,offeringsu,thefloorpriceforthisricehasbeenraisedseveraltimes,subsidyhasbeenincreasedannually,andsubsidyhasbeenofferedforthetemporarypurchaseandstorageandsouthwardtransportoftheregion,,%ofthecountry%ofthecountry,thethreeprovincesinthenortheasthaveaccountedformorethan80%ofthecountry,theprovinceofHeilongjianghasclaimeda53%shareofthisgrowth.(2)Expandedsownareaand~2010period,(15mumakeonehectare).Andin2011,theprovince,,structureinputs(mainlyfarmlandandirrigationimprovementandgreenhouseseedlingcultivation),theaverageunitoutputis423kilogramsforthewholeprovinceand550~~800kilogramspermu.(3)ThenortheastregionhasbecomegrowinglyimportantinChina,China,,transportingthisriceoutoftheregion,whichhashelpedtheregion,thisregionsriceisconsumedin28provincialadministrativeprovinces(autonomousregions,municipalities).Besides,,,thegrowthofthedemandforround-grainednonglutinousricehasoutpacedthegrowthofthesupplyofthisriceinrecentyears,,grainenterprises,processingenterprisesandothermarketplayershavebeenmoreenthusiasticaboutricepurchaseandasare,farmersarenolongereagertosellgrainforcash,,(1),,%,%,weatherhasbeenlargelygoodinmostcorn-producingareas,exceptforabout650,000muinJilin(%oftheprovincescorn-growingarea).Second,,%,,,,theexpandedcorn-growingare,theNorthChinaregionandtheHuanghairegionhavesamecorn-gro,upmorethan3%yearonyear.(2),bothcorn-growingacreageandco,somehigh-latitudeaing,%higherthaninthepreviousyear,%,farmershavegrowncorneveninsomesloppyland,grassland,,theprovince%%over2000.(3),(CBOT),thepriceofcornfuturesrose60%1,from1,850yuanpertonto2,sticmarketdemandhasbeenstrong,,,%.Ourfieldsurveyindicatesthatthepurchasingpriceofcornproducedinthenortheastregion,,,thepurchasingpricethisyearrangedbetween2,100~2,200yuanperton(withstandardmoisture),up17%nthusiasticaboutcorngrowing.FanJianjunRecently,whetherChinahasenteredintotheeraof"highinflation""highinflation",,theviewpointof"Chinaenteringintoaneraofstructuralinflation"seemsmoreaccuratet(ConsumerPriceIndex)orPPI(ProducerPriceIndex).Certainly,commoditiesinthebasket,thenwecansayanoverallinflationhastakenplaceintheeconomy;iftheriseofthepriceindexistriggeredbytheriseofthepricesofatypeorseveraltypesofcommoditiesinthebasket,,theresultindicatesthattherearesimplytwotypesofinflationintheworld:;whereasbothgeneralizedandstructuralinflationsoccurinemergingeconomiesordevelopingcountries,roughlydividedintooverallpricerisepossiblyincurredbytheexcessiveexpansionoftheaggregatedemandorbyexcessissueofmoneyandtheoverallpricerisepossiblredbytheexcessiveexpansionofthenominalaggregatedemand,ortriggeredbyexcessissueofmoney,then,,,oneo%~70%andthefundsoutstandingforforeignexchangeconstituteabout30%~40%.Duetothebiggerratioofbankloan,thepeoplesbankusuallyreducesloanstocurbtheexcessiveexpansionofmoney,whilelittleattentionhasbeenpaidtothefundsoutstandingforforeignexchangeproportioning30%~40%.Theresultofsuchcontrolovertheaggregatedemandisthatalthoughthenominalaggregatedemandcanbecontainedtoacertainextent,thecontrolwillalsoseverelyimpairtheactualaggregatesupply--whichisthemajorissueexistinginChinaroduction,andthereductionofinvestmentsignifiesthedeteriorationofthefuturepotentialcapacityoftotalcommoditysupply,the,foracountrylikeChinawhosefundsoutstandingforforeignexchangearehandsome,ifthepriceriseistriggeredbytheexcessiveexpansionofthenominalaggregatedemand,thenthepolicyaimedatcontainingnominalaggregatedemandshouldbefocusedoncontrollingtheexcessivelyrapidgrowthoffsfamoussaying"inflationiswheneverandwhereveramonetaryphenomenon"iswidelyknowninChina,mostthinkinf,theChinesegovernmenthasalwayspaidmuchattentiontothecontrolovernominalaggregatedemand(namely,themoneysupply),timesincetheoutbreakofAsianfinancialcrisisin1997,exceptfortherapidgrowthofthebroadmoneyM2in2009forthereasonofaddressingtheglobalfinancialcrisis,theM2growthinotheryearshasallbeencontrolledunder20%(15%~16%inmostoftheyears).ForChina,acountryundergoingitseconomictransformationandwithitsaverageeconomicgrowthratereachingmorethan10%,scontroloverthenominalaggregatedemand(moneysupply)hasbeengenerallysuccessfulinrecenttenyears,Chin(nominalaggregatedemand),butitalsorelatestocommodities(actualaggregatesupply),andthatwhenexcessmoneychasesafterlimitednumberofcommodities,"inflationiswheneverandwhereveramonetaryphenomenon"iscorrectinitself,,theChinesegovernment,whenimplementingcontroloverinflation,haspaidtoomuchattentiontothecontrolovernominalaggregatedemandormoneysupply,withlittleattentionpaidtothecontroloveractualaggregatesupply——Chinasmacroeconomicpolicyhasevenbeenlittleorientedtowardthecontroloveraggregatesupply,whereasproblemsexistingincontrolove,evenifthenominalaggregatedemandremainsstable,relatedtoimpropercontroloveraggregatesupply(ratherthanimpropermonetarycontrol),itscommoditysupplycomesfromtwosources:domesticproductionandnetimportsfromoverseas(whichmightbenegative).Therefore,controloveraggregatesupplyshouldincludetheaforesaidtwoaspects.、DVORByBaShusong,ResearchInstituteofFinanceofDRCResearchReportNo47,2012ThecreditgrowthrateofChinascommercialbankingsystemhasbeenlowerthanexpectedsincethebeginningof2012,,onecriticalreasonforthis,apartfromtherestrictedcapacityofsomecommercialbanksingrantingloansduetoconstraintsofregulatoryindicatorslikethedeposit-loanratio,liesinthefactthatthenewcreditdemandsoftheinvestmentandfinancingplatformsoflocalgovernmentswithstrongcreditdemand,andtherealestateandtheinfra,small,againstthebackdropofdeceleratingeconomicgrowth,decreasingprofitsofmicroandsmallenterprises(MSEs)andincreasingdifficultyinoperatingMSEs,commercialbanksgenerallyareextremelycautiousaboutrenderingservicestoMSEs,whichisresponsibleforthegrowineenfinancialservicesprovidedbyChinascurrentfinancialsystemandtheactualfinancialneedsofMSEs,,themarket-orientedrestructuringoflargefinancialinstitutionsrepresentedbyjoint-stockreformandpubliclistingofstate-ownedbankshasmadeconsiderableprogressandfinomicallydevelopedareasintherestructuringprocess,financialse,howshouldChinasfinancialreformbepushedforwardInlightoftheachievementsinfinancialreformandthepracticalneedsofrealeconomyforthefinancialindustry,financialservicesforsmallandmicroenterprisesarerelativelybackward,theeffortsinboostingmarket-orientedinterestratesneedtobeintensified,andthesupplyoffinancialservicesisstillinsufnomy,theimprovementofsmallandmicrofinancialservicesisrelatedtoabove-mentionedsubstantiveneedsforfinancialservicestovariousde,well-developedsmallandmicrofinancecanprovidesupportforthefarmersindevelopmentofagricultureandruralareas,improveruralfinancialservices,helpredressfundingshortageofruralfinancialmarkets,fostercompetitioninruralfinancialmarketsandopenupnewchannelstomeetthefundingneedsoffarmersandruralMSEs,,thesmallandmicrofinancecanfacilitatetherationalandefficientuseofprivatecapital,guideandpromotethestandardizeddevelopmentofprivatefinancing,a,CultivateDiversifiedFinancingChannelsandUrgeSmallandMicroFinancialInstitutionstoProperlyPositionThemselvesSoAstoMatchupTheirFinancialServiceswiththeActualNeedsofSmallandMicroEnterprisesAccordingtostatistics,Chinahasover10millionsmallandmediumenterprises(SMEs)withlegalpersonality,accountingfor99%ofalltheenterprisesnationwide,contributingto60%ofChinasGDP,50%oftaxrevenuesand80%nsreleasedbythecentralbankshowsthatasoftheendofDecember2011,thebalanceofsmallbusinessloans(includingbillsdiscounted),%,90%ofbelow-scaleenterpriseshadnodebtor-creditorrelationshipwithfinancialinstitutions,neitherdid95%,inviewofthesizablesocialvaluecreatedbysmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,,financialinstitutionsareinclinedtograntcreditandotherscarcefinancialresourcestolargeenterprises,amovethatinactualitys,rationalbusinesspositioningandviablebusinessmodefordifferentfinanci,smallandmicrofinancialinstitutionssuchasruralbanksandsmallloancompaniesshouldbevigorouslyencouraged;ontheotherhand,largecommercialbanksshouldbeurgedtoprovideservicesforMSEsandadjusttheirclientstructurebyMicroFinancialInstitutionsIncludingSmallLoanCompaniesThepresentstrictaccesscontrolinthefinanc,,,intermsoftheoveralldistributionoffinancialinstitutions,insmallandmedium-sizedtownswithahighconcentrationofMSEs,thereareonlyalimitednumberof,strictaccesscontrolinthefinancialindustryservingMSEsnotonlyleadstoinsufficientcompetitioninthefinancialservicemarket,directlyincreasingthefinancingcostofMSEs,butalsobringsaboutsignificantlicensepremium,makingfinancialinstitutionsbecomeinclinedtorelyonpremiumsbroughtaboutbylicensingcontrol,,appropriatederegulationisnecessarytopromotesmallandmicrofinancialinstitutionslikesmallloancompaniestoprovidefinancialservicesforMSEs,andnewsmallloancompaniesshouldbeintroducedtoassModelforSmallandMicroFinancialInstitutionsSoAstoBolsterTheirDevelopmentThesustainabledevelopmentofsmallandmicrofinancialinstitutionsmeansthatsuchinstitutionscangenerateadequateincomefromfinancialservicestocovertheiroperatingcostsandcapitalcostsandultimatelysurviveandthrive,,themarket-orientedinterestrateregimeisconducivetothesust,onereasonforthepoorperformanceofChinasmicrofinanceearlieronisthatlowinterestratesweremistakenlybelievedtobeameasurefor"povertyalleviation".Suchpolicyorientationononehanddisinclinescommercializedfinancialinstitutionstoundertakesmallcreditbusiness,ormakessmallloaninstitutionsengagedinmicrofinancerelyonspecialfundingsupportandtherebyfailtorealizefinancialindependence;ontheotherhand,italsoleadstorent-seekingwhere,inordertopromotesoundandsustainabledevelopmentofsmallandmicrofinancialinstitutions,itisimperativetoallowthemtomakenecessaryprofitsthroughnormaloperationsandinparticular,topro,smallandmicrofinancialinstitutionsshouldfocusonthecustomerorientationofMSEs,providefinancialservicesthatbestmeettheneedsofMSEs,givefullplaytotheiradvantageslikedistinctregionalcharacteristics,lowinformationcosts,rapidbusinessapprovalandlowtransactioncosts,concentrateondevelopingpromisingMSEclients,strengtheninnovationonriskmanagement,adjustbusinessstructure,enhancebusinesscompetitivenessandtverallfinancialstructure.ByWangLiejunGongSen,ResearchDepartmentofSocialDevelopmentofDRCResearchReportNo50,2010Chinashouseholdregistersystemisnotonlyapopulationmanagementsystembasedonhouseholdregister,butalsoasystemonrightsdefinitionandinterestersystem,itisnecessarytobrieflyreviewtheprocessofthesystemsFunctionHasGraduallyShiftedfromRestrictingPopulationMovementtoProtectingLocalSocialWelfareInadditiontothegeneralfunctionsofpopulationmanagementandpublicordermaintenance,Chinashouseholdregistersys,thecouonandtoprotectthelimitedjobscreated,,formallyintroducedin1958,wasdesignedtostrictlyrestrictruralpopulation,itsfoodsupplybecameincreasinglysu,,,,"peasantworkers",thehouseholdregiemsandaspeasantsvirtuallyhadnosayinpolicymaking,ahostofwelfaresystemssuchasfullemployment,housing,medicalcare,education,nursingandold-agepensionweresubsequentlyestablishedtotargetonurbanresidentsonly,whorepresentedasmallproportionofChinaspopulationatthetime(LinYifuetal:ChinasMiracle:DevelopmentStrategyandEconomicReform,TrinityBookstoreShanghaiBranch,1996;CaiFang:ChinasCityDevelopmentinTransition–CityLevels,FinancingCapacitiesandMigrationPolicies,EconomicResearch,,2003).Asthisprocesswashighlypath-dependentandself-reinforcing,,andpartlytoregionalgovernments,afterthemid-1980swhenthehouseholdregistersystemceasedtoperformthefunctionofrestrictingruralpopulationsmigrationtourbanareas,thesystemsmainfu:,,othermeansoflivelihoodandjobswerenolon,,thismainlinebegantohaveanewcontent:gister,whichwas,inasense,,nowpubliclydiscussed,mainlyreferstothelatter.(1)Thereformofsmalltownhouseholdregistersyst,featuringtheliberalizationofhouseholdregisterqualifications,,thedevelopmentofruralenterprisespromptedrurallabortorapidlymovetosmalltowns,andsmalltownsalsoneededtoexpa,smalltownhouseholdregisterofferedlesssocial,thestatebegantoallowpeasantstoworkandliveinsmalltowns(excludingcountytowns)(thelandmarkpolicydocumentwastheNoticeoftheStateCouncilonAllowingPeasantstoSettleDowninSmallTowns).Aftersomeupsanddowns,anation,theGuidelinesforPromotingtheReformoftheSmallTownHouseholdRegisterSystemwerepromulgatedtowidenareasforpea,thequalificationsforsmalltownhouseholdregisterwereto"havelegalpermanentresidenceandstablejoborsourceofincome".Inpractice,"legalpermanentresidence"becamethemainqualification,whichgraduallyevolvedinto"housepurchaseforhouseholdregister".Ashousepricesinsmalltownswerenothigh,speciallyintherealestatesector,butalsohelpedsolvetheseparationofmigrantrural,smalltownshavefailedtoincreasejobsbyabigmargin,moreandmoreeconomicandsocialpolicieshavebeenintroducedinfavorofruralareas,potentialcompensationsforlandexpropriationshavebecomerelativelyhigh,andthepeasantswhohaveacquiredur,smalltownhouseholdregisterhasgraduallylostitsappealtopeasants,andsomepeasantswhohaveacquireister,insteadofhouseholdregisteritself,thathavearealappeal.ByXiaBin,,2011Aseriesofregulatorymeasuresadoptedbythecentralgovernmentsincethebeginningoftheyearhavebroughtaboutadownturnofthepresentmacroeconomicdata,yettherestillexistsapressureofpricerise,an,,somepeoplewhoareconcernedaboutmarketperformancebegintoworryabout"over-regulation"and"hardlanding"andappealfora"changeofdirection".Som,asaresultofworriesabouttheunsustainabilityofChinaseconomicdevelopmentovertime,everyoneagreesthatthemodeofdevelopmentmustbetrans,oce,ingeneral,therearedoubtsandconfusCurrentEconomicDevelopmentandtheFeaturesofChinasEconomicPerformanceatPresentStageHowtodispelthedoubtsandconfusionsParticularlyhowtofosterpeoplesconfidenceintransformingthemodeofChinaseconomicdevelopmentandenableallpeopletoovercomethedifficultieswithconcertedeffortsinfaceofthereleaseofpossiblymoreunsatisfactorydatainJuneItcallsforanin-depthanalysisofthecausesofthecurrentdoubtsandconfusions,particularlyweneedtomakeatheoreticallyclearjudgmentonthebasisoftheobjectiverecognitionofthefeaturesofpresentChinaseconomicdevelopmentandthoseofChina,weshouldenableourselvestocomeupwithafullsetofproperandeffectiveregulatorypolicies,ntfacingChineseeconomyisthelong-last~2008,thedouble-digitgrowthoftheChineseeconomythatoncestirreduptheChinesepeoplewasachievedthroughChina"excessprosperity"appearinglobaleconomyOneoftheimportantreasonswasthat,astheworldbiggesteconomy,theUnitedStates,byvirtueofthespecialhegemonyofUSdollarininternationalmonetarysystem,devotedmajoreffortstocarryingoutexpansivecreditpolicies,causinghugedeficitanddeficitspending,stimulatingnotonlyitsowneconomicprosperitybutalsobringingalongtheprosperityoftheglobaleconomy,,stimulatedbytheworldbiggesteconomythroughexpandingcredit,,,anin-depthanalysisoftheessenceoftheglobalcrisissuggeststhatthecrisishasbeenactuallyastructuralreadjustmentoftheglobaleconomicdisequilibriumcharacterizedbythepast"highconsumptionandlowsavings"intheUnitedStatesandrepresentedby"highsavingsandlowconsumption"inChina,aswellas,suchareadjustmentwillbelong,%,,theformerUStreasurysecretary,alsoexpressedhisworriesthattheUSeconomymayencountertheexperienceofthe"losttenyears"demandforChina,,seconomicdevelopmentdeterminesthatChina,weknowthatinthelongrunChinastillhasapotentialandopportu,evenifwedonottakesuchrestrainingfactorsasenvironmentandresourcesintoaccountforthemoment,internationalexperiencesuggeststhatitishardtomaintaintheinvestmentforthelastinghighgrowthseeninthepastwhentheper-capitaincomeapproaches5,000USdollars;thataprocessisneededforcontainingtherapidgrowthofconsumptionwhensocialpolarizationbecomesserious;plusthegradualriseofthelabor,theChineseeconomywillinevitablytendtoturngraduallyfromaplatfoseconomicgrowth,ratherthanamatterofeconomiccycle,,adoptionof"excess"dictionsinterveinandduplicateinpresentChineseeconomy,,whentheoriginalissueofeconomicstructurehasremainedunsettled,ChinaandtheworldworkedtogetherinarightdirectiontocombattheinfluenceoftheUScrisisinprevioustwoyears,,therealestatemarketdominatingChinaseconomicgrowthinasensehasseenitsownseriousproblemsofmarketstructureremaininglongunsettled(suchasthelaggingconstructionoflow-renthousing)and,sincethebeginningof2009,thechangeofthecontroloverthehousingmarketandtherepeatoftherelat,whentheconsumptiongrowthcannotbeaccelerated,thoughChinahasstressedpeopleswell-beingandexpenditureonconsumptionbyadoptingpoliciesforstabilizingtheeconomicgrowthduringtheresurgencefromthecrisis,yetChinahas,forthemostpart,adoptedthepoliciesaccustomedforthecountryforyearsf,coupledwiththerepeatoftheeconomicresurgencetakingplaceinsuchcountriesastheUnitedStates,thestructuralandcyclicalcontradictionshavebeenfurthermadetointerveinandmorecomplicatedintheChineseeconomy.。

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